VSL is the National Metrology Institute of the Netherlands. VSL participates with staff and equipment from the chemistry group (gas analysis). The chemistry group in VSL has more than 30 years of experience in the preparation and certification of gas mixtures, including those for air quality applications. The accuracy of the gravimetrically prepared mixtures is state-of-the-art and has been demonstrated in many international comparisons with other National Metrology Institutes. The chemistry group has a vast track record in the supply of reference gas mixtures for a wide range of compounds in a broad composition range. The group also has many years of experience in dynamic mixture preparation using diffusion and permeation techniques for preparing volatile organic compounds in air and reactive compounds in zero gas. It has a wide variety of state-of-the-art analytical equipment for analysis of all air quality gaseous compounds. Over the last 5 years the group has invested strongly in a novel laser-based spectroscopic setup capable of analyzing a range of compounds with nmol/mol sensitivity. VSL is JRP-Coordinator and it will also be leading a technical work pacakge 2 and the creating impact activities. In addition, VSL will be involved in WP 3.
BAM is the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing of Germany. Its competences are to improve safety in technology and chemistry through research and development, testing, analysis, approvals, advice and information. Within these interconnected fields important areas are the collaboration in developing statutory regulations, for example on safety standards and threshold values or the development and supply of reference materials and methods, in particular for chemical analysis and materials testing. Furthermore BAM assists in the development of standards and technical regulations for the evaluation of substances, materials, structures and processes. BAM is responsible for the organisation of international round robin tests and international interlaboratory studies. The BAM working group “Gas Analysis, Metrology” has also deep knowledge about the production of reference gas standards. Furthermore there is expert knowledge for the validation of methods. Members of BAM working group “Emissions/Organic Compounds in Air” has many years of experiences in measurement and the definition of standards for testing VOC emissions from building products. Several round robin tests were organised to check the test chamber method for VOC emissions. BAM is involved in the European and national standardization for emission testing of building products and indoor air relevant emitting compounds. For this reason, BAM will be WP leader of WP 3 where research work on VOC with focus on semi-volatiles will be carried out.
METAS the Swiss National Metrology Institute is part of the legal entity Eidgenoessisches Justiz- und Polizeidepartement (EJPD). It realises and disseminates internationally harmonised and recognised measurement standards at the required accuracy. The Analytical Chemistry Section provides services related to the application of measuring instruments in the fields of environment and health. It provides standards to measure air pollutants and to determine the chemical activity of physiologically important substances. The gas analysis laboratory provides services in the area of gaseous airborne pollutants and carries out accurate measurements for gas mixtures for over 25 years. It started with the analysis and homologation of exhaust gas analyzers according to Swiss national law. A special emphasis of the laboratory lies on the dynamic generation of gas mixtures. The participation in BIPM-K74 already did prove the low uncertainty of the primary dynamic generation system based on magnetic suspension balances. EJPD is very strong in accurate gas flow calibrations as proven in EURAMET 806 and has also already participated in K26a/P50a with a dilution system for NO at 720 nmol/mol level. For this reason, EJPD will contribute to WP 1 activities with the generation of dilution standard gas mixtures for air quality pollutants at limit values and with the build-up of a portable standard for NO2.
The Finnish Meteorological Institute (“Ilmatieteen Laitos”; FMI) is a governmental institute, which produces high-quality observational data and research findings on the atmosphere and on seas. The Institute uses its expertise effectively to provide services that promote public safety and enhance well-being among people and in the environment. FMI is entitled as governmental expert institution in air quality by the national environmental legislation. Therefore FMI is responsible for air quality know-how, expertise and guidance required by the national and international authorities, and is thus providing data, results, methods, and assessments for various ministries and governmental agencies. Furthermore, FMI is responsible for conducting various assessments and studies required by the European Union legislation, such as EU Air Quality Directives. FMI has been nominated as a National Reference Laboratory (NRL) according to the Air Quality Directive, AQD, (2008/50/EC) and as Designated Institute (DI) in 2002 by the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES). The main task of the MIKES-FMI Standards Laboratory is to provide calibration service according to CIPM/MRA in the field of Air Quality. The MIKES-FMI Standards Laboratory is accredited as a calibration laboratory according to ISO 17025:2005 by FINAS. FMI is also member of the Aquila network. FMI will be contributing in WP 1 mainly concentrating on preparation of NO2 gas mixtures by the GPT method and in WP 2 on the determination of SO2 trace levels.
The Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM) is a public body under the jurisdiction of the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research. INRIM is devoted to the study of the science of measurements and to research into materials; furthermore it works on developing innovative technologies and devices. Performing the duties of primary metrological Institute, INRIM realises the primary standards for the basic and derived units of the International System of units (SI), assures the maintenance of such standards, their international comparison, provides the national measurements traceability to the SI, represents Italy in international metrological organisms. Its main research activities deal with the fundamental physical constants (e.g. Avogadro and Boltzmann constant), new primary standards, innovative materials, nanotechnology, quantum technologies (quantum information, imaging and metrology) metrology for chemistry and artificial vision. INRIM contributes to this JRP in the development of new gas sensors, owing to its experience in gas metrology, in the realization of sensing devices, and in graphene technology. INRIM will focus on development of a graphene based micro-sensor in WP 4.
The Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES) is one of seven institutes that constitute the Joint Research Centre (JRC), which is a Directorate-General of the European Commission providing customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of European Union policies. With 470 staff, the IES is one of the largest interdisciplinary environmental research institutes in Europe. JRC staff participating in this JRP are working in the “Climate Change and Air Pollution" Unit. The Unit is running the European Reference Laboratory for Air Pollution (ERLAP), contributing with various activities to harmonization of air quality assessment, improving measurement quality and the understanding of air pollution impacts. ERLAP is also participating in Key Comparisons together with the National Metrology Institutes. JRC will lead WP 4.
LNE is committed to excellence in measurement and testing and to progress in quality and safety, for the benefit of industries and consumers alike. Since 1997, LNE's public service mission has been specified in a fulfilment agreement drawn up every four years with the French government. The state's financial contribution takes the form of annual subsidies. These enable the Laboratory to operate as the national reference laboratory in metrology for French industry; to pursue its scientific and technological development in order to anticipate new measurement and testing requirements created by advances in technology and society's new expectations in the spheres of safety, health, quality and environmental protection; to provide state authorities and key economic players with the technical assistance they require to draft new regulations and standards at national, European and international level; to develop new test methods; and to carry out market surveillance. Applying its multidisciplinary technical expertise, LNE provides companies with services in the fields of metrology, medical and health products, construction products, packaging, transport, and environment and industrial products. The Laboratory offers a full range of technical conformity services, from calibration and testing to technical assistance and training. LNE is also a certification body, providing companies with the technical solutions they need to ensure the quality and conformity of their products and enhance them on markets worldwide. In the field of gas metrology, LNE has a long experience in the preparation of gravimetric gas mixtures and in the analysis of gas mixtures. LNE is expert in preparation of standard gas mixtures and analysis. LNE developed and maintained Reference Materials, which are primary standard gas mixtures (PSM) obtained by using gravimetry as preparation technique. The gravimetric principle, which is described in the International Standard ISO 6142, is a powerful tool to produce accurate gas standards. On the other hand, LNE takes part in the French Central Laboratory for monitoring air quality (LCSQA), which ensures the technical coordination of the monitoring networks in ambient air. In this framework, LNE has developed capabilities in gas analysis from nmol/mol to mol/mol and is accredited COFRAC. LNE will lead WP 1 by revisiting the preparation of reactive calibration gases and contribute to the activities of WP 2 in the development of detection techniques for zero gas impurities.
The Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES) is a National Metrology Institute designated to develop and maintain the SI-system in Finland. MIKES carries out scientific research on several fields of fundamental metrology, in order to improve the realization of the units and the accuracy of measurements. MIKES has significant prior experience of sensitive laser spectroscopy and instrumentation and its application to fundamental and applied research, including spectroscopic detection of atmospheric pollutants and trace gases [MIKES 1-4]. In these fields, MIKES collaborates with universities (University of Helsinki, University of Cambridge, Aalto University, and Tampere University of Technology), industry, and Finland’s environmental administration. In addition to the optical sensor technology, the researchers of MIKES have recently been involved, for example, in the research of epitaxial graphene and its use in sensor applications. MIKES will contribute in task activities in WP 2,spectroscopic techniques for simultaneous detection of zero gas impurities and ammonia adsorption effect and in WP 4, development of graphene micro-sensor.
The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) is the National Measurement Institute for the UK and is a world-leading centre of excellence in developing and applying the most accurate measurement standards, to science and technology. The Analytical Science Division at NPL is devoted to the development and dissemination of new standards to underpin chemical and biological measurements and includes 90 scientists. The Gas Metrology and Trace Analysis Group at NPL will deliver the research in this JRP by NPL. This group of 11 scientists is devoted to the development and dissemination of standards for gas and trace analysis. It has been particularly focussed on the standards required for atmospheric and air quality monitoring. NPL disseminates a full suite of standard gas mixtures to support the EU Air Quality Directives. These are based on a combination of standards prepared by gravimetric dilution and dynamic dilution methods. NPL’s research in this JRP will build on its experience of the development of novel methods for analysis of ultra-pure gases (WP 2), and in the organisation of a cross check for loaded VOC absorption tubes (WP 3). NPL is operating a group of experts in metrology of gases at trace levels in ambient air, and is responsible for the UK’s national monitoring network. Technical experts of NPL are members of national and international standardization (sub) committees and working groups, e.g. CEN TC 264 (Air Quality) and ISO TC 158 (Gas Analysis). Furthermore NPL is a member of the AQUILA network.
The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is Germany’s national metrology institute. It is an institution for science and technology and the highest technical authority of the Federal Republic of Germany for the field of metrology and certain sectors of safety engineering. PTB comes under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. It meets the requirements for calibration and testing laboratories as defined in the EN ISO/IEC 17025. It has a staff of about 1600 employees of whom about 500 are graduates. It is fundamental task of PTB to realize and maintain the legal units in compliance with the International System of Units (SI) and to disseminate them. PTB is also coordinating the national network for Metrology in Chemistry. With respect to gas analysis, this network is the framework for a close collaboration with the Federal Agency for Environmental Protection (UBA). UBA is acting as a representative of the EMEP network. PTB has spectrometric activities in the near infrared based on tuneable diode lasers and in the mid infrared based on quantum cascade lasers. These setups were used with the TILSAM method. PTB is also active in molecular line strength measurements. At present, PTB is incorporating a 20-years experienced tuneable diode laser-group of Prof. V. Ebert, moving from the Heidelberg University to the PTB working group for spectrometric gas analysis. PTB’s activity shall be focussed to WP 2, dealing with water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) as analytes. PTB will develop, set up and validate an IR spectrometric method and a respective system to simultaneously quantify impurities in zero gases. The method is based on TILSAM combined with temporal wavelength multiplexing. PTB operates a joint group of spectroscopists coming from the metrology-in-chemistry area and the academic laser diagnostics community (Prof. Dr. V. Ebert: Universität Heidelberg, TH-Darmstadt). Expertise from this synergetic combination shall merge into the planned project. This is explicitly referring to the multiplexing expertise available in the group of V. Ebert. PTB is currently organising EUROMET project no. 934 on spectrometry-based gas analysis as a potential primary method (TILSAM). This is linked to the GAWG of the CCQM and to a project with partners from the SIM region, led by PTB. Additionally, PTB’ spectroscopy group is active in the iMERA-plus project “Breath Analysis” (T2.J02) and the EMRP project ENG01-GAS.
SMU laboratory of gases is part of the National Metrology Institute and it has experience in analysis of environmental gases based on oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, including preparation of relevant calibration gas mixtures. It has reached good results in international comparisons organised by BIPM in this field. SMU is accredited according to ISO 17025 since 2001 and certified according to ISO 9001 since the same year. It is responsible for measurement traceability in this field in Slovakia via providing calibrations of relevant gas mixtures used in practice- especially in environment. For purpose of these tasks the laboratory executes research with respect to the improvement of methods of calibration and preparation of these mixtures as well. In WP1 SMU will participate together with WP participants on development and improvement of preparative dilution methods of NO, NO2 and SO2 for calibration purposes. In WP2 SMU will participate on development of calibration methods for contents of NO, NO2and SO2 in zero gas standards.
The Federal Environment Agency is a Designated Institute of the NMI in Germany (PTB) for regulated gaseous air pollutants in ambient air. UBA comes under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of Environment. It meets the requirements for calibration and testing laboratories as defined in EN ISO/IEC 17025. It has a staff of about 1300 employees UBA activities will focus on WP 1 dealing with static injection of SO2, NO. UBA is operating a group of about 10 experts in metrology of gases at trace levels in ambient air. Technical experts of UBA are members of working groups of VDI, DIN CEN TC 264 (Air Quality). Main topics are: Reference measuring methods, quality assurance, testing of new instruments. This is done with the aim to reach data quality objectives of directive 2008/50/EU. UBA is member of the gas working group of CCQM at the BIPM. It takes part in international key comparisons on highest metrological level. UBA is also member of AQUILA, the network of European Reference Laboratories. It takes part in round-robin tests at the European laboratory ERLAP.